How to format USB without losing?

Formatting a USB flash drive is a common task many computer users have to do at some point. Whether you just bought a new USB drive and need to prepare it for first use, or want to do a full format to wipe a used drive clean, formatting a USB is usually quick and simple. However, there is always the risk of losing valuable files and data stored on the USB when you format it. So it’s important to understand how to properly format the drive without permanent data loss.

In this comprehensive guide, we will cover everything you need to know about formatting a USB flash drive without losing data. You’ll learn the different formats available, how to backup your USB drive first, use the “quick format” option, and recover data after formatting just in case. Follow these steps and you can format any USB drive without worry.

Reasons for Formatting a USB Drive

There are a few main reasons why you might want or need to format a USB flash drive:

Setting Up a New USB Drive

When you first buy a new USB flash drive, it will often come unformatted. That means before you can use it, you need to format the drive into a file system your computer can recognize. Formatting a new USB drive preps it for first use and creates empty space to store data.

Fixing Corrupted Files or Errors

If your USB drive starts behaving strangely or your computer won’t recognize it anymore, formatting can help reset the drive and fix issues caused by corrupted files or errors on the device. Reformatting cleans out any problems and gives you a fresh slate.

Erasing Sensitive Data Before Selling or Giving Away

If you plan on selling, gifting or recycling an old USB drive, you’ll want to make sure no personal or sensitive data remains on the device. Formatting completely erases and wipes clean all the existing data, so you don’t have to worry about any of your information falling into the wrong hands.

Increasing Performance and Storage

Over time, all the saving, deleting, and moving of files around on a USB drive can fragment the data scattered across the device. Formatting defragments and reorganizes this data so it saves in a more structured way. This can boost the drive’s storage capacity and improve data saving/transfer speeds.

How to Format a USB Drive in Windows

The quickest and easiest way to format a USB drive is by using the built-in formatting tool in Windows. Here’s how to do it:

Step 1: Insert your USB drive into the computer

Plug the USB drive into an open USB port on your PC. Once inserted, Windows will automatically recognize the device and install any required drivers.

Step 2: Open Windows File Explorer

Launch File Explorer by clicking the folder icon in your taskbar or pressing Windows key + E. This opens an explorer window.

Step 3: Right-click on your USB drive

In the list of drives on the left side of the explorer window, locate and right-click on your plugged in USB drive. This brings up a context menu.

Step 4: Select “Format…”

From the context menu that pops up, choose “Format…” to open the Format dialog box.

Step 5: Choose formatting options

In the Format window:

  • Make sure the correct drive is selected under “Volume”
  • Give the drive a Volume Label name (optional)
  • Select the File System – exFAT is recommend for best compatibility
  • Check the “Quick Format” box

Step 6: Click “Start” to format

Once you’ve selected your formatting preferences, click the “Start” button. This immediately begins the formatting process.

Step 7: Confirm formatting

A warning message will appear asking if you’re sure you want to format. Click “OK” to confirm and continue.

Step 8: Wait for formatting to finish

The format will now quickly run. A progress bar shows the status. When it reaches 100%, the USB drive is successfully formatted.

And that’s it! By using the Quick Format option, you can easily reformat any USB flash drive without worrying about losing data.

Alternate Ways to Format a USB Drive

Aside from using Windows’ built-in tool, there are a couple other ways you can access formatting options to set up your USB drive.

Using File Explorer

Similar to the steps above, you can format a drive through File Explorer without the right-click context menu:

  1. Open File Explorer and click “This PC” on the left side panel.
  2. Under Devices and Drives, right-click on the USB drive.
  3. Select “Format…” to open the format dialog box.
  4. Choose your formatting options and click “Start”.

Using Disk Management

The Windows Disk Management utility also provides a USB formatting feature:

  1. Open the Disk Management tool (press Windows key + R and run “diskmgmt.msc”).
  2. Right-click the USB drive under the Disk List.
  3. Click “Format…” from the menu.
  4. Select formatting options and click “OK” to format.

So in summary, you can format a USB drive directly from File Explorer, Disk Management, or with a third-party formatting tool. But using Windows Quick Format is typically the fastest and easiest method.

How Quick Format Works

When you format a USB drive in Windows, you’ll notice there is a checkbox for “Quick Format”. This is on by default when formatting removable USB drives. Quick Formatting skips some steps in a full format to speed up the process.

Here’s an overview of how Quick Format works:

  • Creates a new File Allocation Table (FAT)
  • Marks the disk space as empty and available for data
  • Does NOT scan for bad sectors
  • Does NOT permanently erase all data on USB drive

Because Quick Format only resets the FAT table and file structure – and does NOT actually overwrite existing data, it finishes almost instantly. This avoids data loss.

However, Full Format does actively overwrite old data, but takes much longer. You only need Full Format when selling or disposing of an older USB drive.

How to Backup a USB Drive Before Formatting

Although Quick Format doesn’t touch your actual files and data, it’s still a smart idea to backup your USB drive before formatting as a precaution. Here are some ways to backup a USB drive:

Copy Files to Computer

The simplest way is to copy all files and folders from the USB drive over to a protected folder on your computer or laptop. Just use copy/paste in File Explorer.

External Hard Drive

For large USB drives, backup the data to an external HDD. Plug the external drive into your computer, then copy files from the USB to the larger backup drive.

Cloud Storage

Upload your USB data to cloud storage services like Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, etc. Most provide 2GB to 15GB of free space.

USB Flash Drive

Use a second USB thumb drive to backup the first. Plug both into your computer, then copy all data from one drive to the other.


For long-term archival storage, you can burn your USB data to blank DVDs or Blu-Rays. This creates external physical backups you can store safely.

So in summary, it’s smart to copy your USB drive contents to another device, cloud storage, or external media before formatting, just in case.

How to Recover Files After Formatting USB

If you formatted a USB drive without backing up and then realized it had important files on it, don’t worry! Here are some tips for recovering lost data from a formatted USB drive:

Disk Recovery Software

Use data recovery software like Recuva or EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard to scan the formatted USB drive and restore deleted files. The software can resurrect data even after a format.

Previous File Versions

If you saved files from the USB onto your computer, try restoring previous versions from File History / System Restore. Right-click the file, go to Properties > Previous Versions.

Cloud Backup

If you have cloud backups of your USB drive (ex: Google Drive), you can easily re-download those files to your computer or a new USB drive after formatting.

Data Recovery Services

For very important lost data, turn to professional recovery services. Experts can forensically restore even formatted data from USB drives. But it’s expensive.

So don’t stress too much before formatting. Just be sure to backup your USB drive properly and recovery is easy if anything goes wrong!

Tips for Formatting USB Drives

Follow these tips when formatting a USB flash drive to avoid common issues:

  • Always use Quick Format on USB drives to prevent data loss
  • Pick the exFAT file system for wide compatibility
  • Reformat very old/damaged drives to restore performance
  • Never just pull out a USB drive while files are copying
  • Back up USB data before formatting as a precaution
  • Scan for viruses if your PC won’t recognize the USB drive

Formatting USB thumb drives is a simple process that every computer user should know how to do. Follow this guide and you’ll be able to format any USB drive smoothly and without losing a single file!


Formatting a USB flash drive properly is crucial to maintaining the integrity and security of your important data. By using the Quick Format option in Windows, backing up data first, and understanding the steps involved, you can easily reformat any USB drive without the risk of permanent data loss.

Quick Format is the key – it skips overwriting data and completes almost instantly. Just be sure to also backup your drive to external media or cloud storage before starting any format, and recovery is easy if needed.

With the right techniques, formatting USB drives doesn’t have to be nerve-wracking. You can refresh and reset any USB drive in minutes and have it wiped or ready to use again in no time. Just follow this guide to format USB drives safely and with confidence.