How to lock pen drive with password in Windows 11 without BitLocker?

Protecting your data by adding password encryption to a USB drive is an important step to prevent unauthorized access to your personal files. With Windows 11, you can utilize the Encrypting File System (EFS) to encrypt data on your USB flash drive and set a password to control access.

Setting up password protection has several key benefits:

  • Prevents others from viewing your private files if the USB drive is lost or stolen
  • Adds a layer of security so only those with the password can open files
  • Allows secure transfer of sensitive documents on a removable drive
  • Gives you control over your data instead of relying on physical possession alone

Overall, putting a password on your pen drive is a smart way to safeguard information and stop unauthorized use. With EFS encryption available in Windows 11, you can easily configure password protection without needing third-party tools.

Check Encrypting File System (EFS) Support

Windows includes built-in support for encrypting files and folders through the Encrypting File System (EFS) [1]. EFS provides an additional layer of security by enabling cryptographic protection of files and directories [2]. It uses public key cryptography to encrypt files, assigning each encrypted file a decryption key.

Enable EFS

To enable EFS on Windows 11, follow these steps:

1. Open File Explorer and go to the Local Disk C: drive. Right click on it and select “Properties”.

2. In the General tab, click on “Advanced”.

3. Check the box next to “Encrypt contents to secure data” and click OK.

4. You’ll get a prompt that encryption will begin on files that are saved to this drive. Click OK to proceed.

EFS is now enabled on your C: drive. Any new files saved here will be encrypted automatically. To encrypt existing files, you need to manually right click on them and select “Encrypt”.

Source: Encrypt or Decrypt Files and Folders with EFS in Windows 11

Encrypt Pen Drive

Follow these steps to encrypt a pen drive using EFS in Windows 11:

  1. Insert the pen drive you want to encrypt into your computer.
  2. Open File Explorer and locate the pen drive.
  3. Right-click on the pen drive and select “Properties” from the context menu.
  4. Click on the “General” tab in the Properties window.
  5. Check the box next to “Encrypt contents to secure data” and click “OK”.
  6. A prompt will appear asking you to confirm encryption. Click “Encrypt”
  7. .

  8. The encryption process will now start. This may take some time depending on the size of the pen drive.
  9. Once complete, the pen drive will be encrypted and inaccessible until unlocked with the encryption key.

With EFS encryption enabled, you will need to enter a password or use your Windows account credentials to access the contents of the encrypted pen drive. The encryption helps prevent unauthorized access to your sensitive files stored on the pen drive.

Set EFS Password

To set a password for EFS encryption on a pen drive in Windows 11, follow these steps:

1. Right-click on the pen drive and select “Properties”.

2. In the Properties window, click the “General” tab and check the box next to “Encrypt contents to secure data”. Click “OK”.

3. You will be prompted to confirm you want to encrypt the drive. Click “Encrypt”.

4. A window will appear asking you to set a password. Type in a strong password you want to use and click “OK”.

5. You will get a confirmation that encryption is in progress.

Once completed, the pen drive will be encrypted and locked with the password you set. You will need to enter this password each time you connect the pen drive to access the data (Microsoft). The encryption key is tied to your Windows user account.

Accessing Encrypted Pen Drive

To access files on an encrypted pen drive on Windows 11, you simply need to insert the pen drive into a USB port and enter the password when prompted. Windows will automatically detect that the pen drive is encrypted with EFS and ask for the password.

Specifically, the steps are:

  1. Physically insert the encrypted pen drive into a USB port on your Windows 11 computer.
  2. A prompt will appear asking for the encryption password. Type in the correct password that was set during the encryption process.
  3. If the password is correct, Windows will decrypt the pen drive and give you access to the files.
  4. You can now view, edit, copy, move, or delete files on the encrypted pen drive as needed.
  5. When done, eject the pen drive safely to lock it again.

As long as you have the correct password, you will have full access to the encrypted files. Without the password, the files will remain securely encrypted and inaccessible.

The encryption and decryption processes are handled seamlessly by Windows, requiring only the password to unlock the pen drive. This makes EFS very convenient for securing your portable data.

Changing EFS Password

To change the password for an encrypted pen drive using EFS in Windows 11, follow these steps:

1. Insert the encrypted pen drive into your computer.

2. Open File Explorer and right-click on the encrypted pen drive. Select “Properties” from the context menu.

3. In the properties window, go to the “General” tab and click “Advanced”.

4. In the “Advanced Attributes” window, click the “Details” button under “Encrypt contents to secure data”.

5. A prompt will appear asking you to confirm changing the encryption password. Click “Yes” to continue.

6. You will be asked to enter a new password. Type in the new password and click “OK”.

7. You will need to re-enter the new password to confirm. Type it again and click “OK”.

The password for the encrypted pen drive will now be changed. The new password will be required to access the encrypted contents on the pen drive going forward.

Changing the password does not require re-encrypting the entire contents of the pen drive. Only the encryption key protecting the data is changed.

It’s important to remember the new password, as losing the password will result in the data becoming inaccessible. There is no way to recover lost EFS passwords.

Source: EFS Encryption & Password Change

Disable EFS Encryption

If you no longer want your pen drive files to be encrypted using EFS, you can disable encryption. Here are the steps to disable EFS encryption on a pen drive in Windows 11:

1. Connect the encrypted pen drive to your computer.

2. Open File Explorer and right-click on the pen drive. Select Turn off BitLocker.

3. In the BitLocker Drive Encryption window, click Yes to disable encryption.

4. You’ll be asked to enter the password. Type in the EFS password and click Turn off BitLocker.

5. Wait for the decryption process to complete. The pen drive will now be accessible without requiring a password.1

Once encryption is disabled, you can freely access, modify, and copy data on the pen drive without needing to provide the password. Existing encrypted files will be decrypted so they are no longer protected.

Alternatives to EFS

While EFS provides file and folder-level encryption, there are other solutions like BitLocker that offer full-disk encryption. BitLocker is Microsoft’s built-in full-disk encryption tool that comes standard in certain versions of Windows.

BitLocker encrypts the entire drive that has your Windows operating system installed. It can also encrypt additional data drives attached to your computer. Unlike EFS which encrypts individual files and folders, BitLocker encrypts everything on the drive at once.

For encrypting USB drives and external hard drives, BitLocker may be a better solution than EFS. BitLocker makes the entire drive accessible only with the correct password or recovery key, compared to EFS where you would need to individually encrypt files and folders. BitLocker also offers more robust protection against unauthorized changes to the drive.

The downside is that BitLocker requires special hardware and is not enabled by default in most versions of Windows. Professional and Enterprise editions of Windows include BitLocker, while Home editions normally require a separate purchase and upgrade to use BitLocker.

For basic encryption needs of external drives on consumer versions of Windows, EFS provides a simpler free solution. But for stronger protection, BitLocker is regarded as the superior encryption standard on platforms that support it.


Using EFS to encrypt pen drives is a simple and effective way to secure your files in Windows 11 without needing third party encryption software or BitLocker. The encryption happens seamlessly and transparently, so you can encrypt files by simply right-clicking them. The encrypted files can only be accessed after entering the correct EFS password.

The major benefit of using EFS is that it is built into Windows and easy to enable. There is no need to download additional software. It allows you to selectively encrypt only certain files and folders. The encryption applies not just when the drive is plugged out, but also if someone else logs into your Windows account.

Overall, EFS provides a lightweight way to add an extra layer of security for your sensitive pen drive files and folders in Windows 11. Just make sure to remember the password, as resetting is difficult if forgotten. Used properly, EFS can be an excellent tool for securely transporting confidential data on removable drives.