What is the tool for digital forensic of images?

Digital image forensics refers to the analysis of digital images to determine authenticity and history. It involves applying scientific techniques to analyze the source and integrity of an image as evidence in legal proceedings and criminal investigations.

The goal of digital image forensics is to detect manipulations, forgeries, or enhancements made to an image. Law enforcement agencies use forensic tools to verify images and uncover falsified visual information for court cases involving financial fraud, child pornography, social media threats, and more. Image forensics helps answer questions like – has this image been doctored? What editing steps were performed? When was it taken? What device or software was used?

With the proliferation of image editing software and deepfake technology, determining authenticity of photos and videos is becoming increasingly critical. A slight alteration made to incriminate or discredit someone can have severe consequences. As visual media serves as key evidence in court cases, the ability to accurately analyze digital images makes forensics an indispensable tool for legal investigations and justice (Source).

Understanding Image Authentication

Image authentication in digital forensics focuses on detecting manipulation or editing of digital images to determine their authenticity and integrity as evidence. Forensic experts use specialized tools and techniques to identify splicing, compositing, removal or insertion of elements, and other alterations made to images (Primeau Forensics).

Authentication involves analyzing the image file itself as well as the associated metadata to check for inconsistencies that may indicate tampering. The image pixels are examined for artifacts, noise patterns, compression levels, and other signals that can reveal editing history. The metadata stores information about how the file was created and processed which can reveal key details about the source camera or editing software (Digital Forensics Corporation).

Establishing the authenticity and veracity of photographic evidence is critical for legal proceedings and journalistic integrity. Proper image forensics techniques can identify manipulation that may not be obvious to the naked eye. This allows digital images to be validated as authentic representations of events (Garrett Discovery).

Common Digital Image Forensic Tools

There are many digital image forensic tools available, both commercial and open source, that have different capabilities. Some of the most popular tools include:

Commercial tools like Amped Authenticate and Forensic Image Analysis provide comprehensive capabilities for authenticating and analyzing digital images. They allow investigators to detect edits, enhance images, extract metadata, and carry out other forensic techniques.

Open source tools like FotoForensics and Image Forensics Suite offer more basic capabilities focused on specific techniques like error level analysis, metadata viewing, and format analysis. While less full-featured, these free tools can still provide useful insights.

In general, commercial tools excel at workflow, case management and automation features due to their more mature codebases. Open source tools provide flexibility and customization for advanced users. Both can serve important roles in a digital forensics toolkit depending on an investigator’s needs and budget.


FotoForensics (https://fotoforensics.com/) is one of the most popular free online tools for analyzing digital images. It was created by Dr. Neal Krawetz and provides both beginner and advanced capabilities for image forensics.

The key technique used by FotoForensics is called Error Level Analysis (ELA). ELA looks at the quality degradation and compression levels in different parts of an image to detect areas that may have been edited or modified. Areas that have been edited will often show markedly different ELA patterns and levels of quality degradation compared to the rest of the image.

To use FotoForensics, you simply upload a digital image to the site. The interface allows you to view the original image side-by-side with the ELA result. Red areas indicate probable manipulation, while blue areas indicate original content. The intensity of the ELA colors indicates the likelihood of editing, with brighter colors meaning a higher chance of modification.

In addition to ELA, FotoForensics provides metadata analysis, filtering tools, cloning detection, and tutorials for interpreting results. The FAQ page (https://fotoforensics.com/faq.php) provides helpful background on the science behind image forensics and how to use the tool effectively.

Overall, FotoForensics is an accessible starting point for analyzing the authenticity of digital images through error level analysis. The easy-to-use interface and detailed guides make it a valuable resource for beginners and professionals alike.

GIFWrat Analysis Tool

GIFWrat is an open source forensic tool designed to detect manipulation in GIF images. It analyzes GIF files to identify anomalies that may indicate tampering or editing.

Some key features of GIFWrat include:

  • Frame analysis to detect deleted or inserted frames
  • Metadata analysis to identify mismatches between metadata and actual image content
  • Compression analysis to detect re-compression artifacts
  • Support for batch analysis of multiple GIFs

GIFWrat is especially useful for detecting manipulation in animated GIFs. Editing an animated GIF requires replacing, deleting, inserting frames which leaves detectable traces. GIFWrat can identify discontinuities in frame disposal methods, mismatches in color tables across frames, and other inconsistencies.https://github.com/sepinf-inc/IPED

Potential use cases for GIFWrat include:

  • Law enforcement – verifying integrity of GIF evidence
  • Social media platforms – detecting doctored GIFs used to spread disinformation
  • News media – validating authenticity of photojournalist GIFs
  • Personal – checking for edits in GIFs received from untrusted sources

With its ability to perform detailed forensic analysis on GIFs, GIFWrat is a valuable tool for detecting manipulation that may go unnoticed by the human eye.

Image Edited?

Image Edited? (http://imageedited.com/) is a free online digital image forensics tool that allows users to easily analyze a photo to determine if it has been edited or photoshopped. The tool is very user-friendly – users simply need to drag and drop a photo file onto the website and it will provide the results of the analysis.

The tool examines the photo’s metadata and pixels to detect modifications. It looks for inconsistencies that may indicate editing, such as portions of the image with distinctly different compression levels. The tool provides a straightforward output, classifying the image as either “Edited” or “Likely Original” to indicate if modifications were detected.

While Image Edited? provides a quick and easy way for anyone to conduct basic image forensics, it does have accuracy limitations. The algorithm it uses cannot definitively determine image authenticity in all cases. Images with subtle or sophisticated edits may be misclassified as original by the tool. As such, Image Edited? is best used for initial vetting of obvious manipulations. Confirmation using more advanced forensic tools would be recommended for images where authenticity is critical.

Amped Authenticate

Amped Authenticate is a powerful image and video forensics tool for tampering detection and analysis. It can analyze common image and video formats like JPG, PNG, BMP, AVI, MP4, and more to detect a wide range of manipulations and editing.

Some of the key capabilities of Amped Authenticate include:

  • Detecting image splicing, copy-move forgeries, and cloning.
  • Analyzing compression levels to identify mismatches.
  • Detecting resizing, rotation, perspective distortions, and other geometric manipulations.
  • Identifying contrast and brightness adjustments.
  • Detecting touch-ups, blurring, sharpening, and other filtering.
  • Analyzing metadata for inconsistencies.
  • Performing error level analysis to detect areas with different JPEG quality levels.

In addition to tampering detection, Amped Authenticate also includes advanced analysis features for forensic experts such as:

  • Frame-by-frame analysis of video.
  • Generating heatmaps showing probability of manipulation.
  • Creating pixel-level difference images.
  • Extracting camera signatures to identify source device.
  • Calculating photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) noise patterns.
  • Performing camera ballistics analysis.

Overall, Amped Authenticate provides a comprehensive set of tools for authenticating images and videos while offering advanced capabilities for expert examiners. More details available at ampedsoftware.com/authenticate.

Forensic Image Analysis

Forensic Image Analysis is a powerful tool for examining digital images to detect manipulation or tampering. It provides several key capabilities for image forensics analysis:

  • Image tampering detection – Forensic Image Analysis can analyze an image to detect common manipulation techniques like splicing, copy-move, or removal. It looks at pixel-level details to find discrepancies that may indicate editing.
  • Camera model identification – The tool can examine metadata and pixel patterns to identify the likely source camera model that captured an image. This can help authenticate images by matching to a known camera source.
  • Photo-response non-uniformity analysis – By analyzing sensor noise patterns, the software can extract the PRNU fingerprint associated with a camera. This fingerprint can then be matched to other images to trace them back to the same device.
  • resampling detection – When an image is resized or its resolution changed, Forensic Image Analysis can often detect signs of resampling to determine if the dimensions have been altered.

Overall, Forensic Image Analysis provides forensic investigators with a sophisticated suite of tools to thoroughly examine images for authenticity and manipulation. Its array of analysis techniques makes it a versatile option for revealing falsified or edited images (https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/digital-image-forensic).

Image Forensics Suite

Image Forensics Suite is an open source digital forensic tool focused on image analysis https://29a.ch/photo-forensics/#forensic-analysis. It provides both file format analysis and camera signature analysis capabilities.

For file format analysis, Image Forensics Suite can extract metadata and examine details like EXIF data to determine if an image is original or has been edited/altered. It can detect manipulations such as resizing, cropping, and more.

The tool also performs camera signature analysis by looking at sensor pattern noise. This can determine the source camera model that was used to capture a photo. Image Forensics Suite compares the noise pattern to a database of known camera signatures to identify the likely camera make and model.

By combining file metadata analysis and camera signature matching, Image Forensics Suite provides investigators with the ability to authenticate digital images and reveal manipulations or inconsistencies. It is a valuable open source addition to the digital forensic toolkit.


Digital image forensics is an important field for verifying the authenticity and integrity of digital images. In this article, we covered some of the key tools used for forensic analysis of digital images, including FotoForensics, GIFWraith, Amped Authenticate, and the Image Forensic Suite. These tools allow investigators to detect manipulations, edits, composites, and other changes to digital images that may not be visible to the naked eye.

As sharing of digital images increases, being able to verify their authenticity is crucial for fields like journalism, criminal justice, and insurance fraud detection. Advanced tools for digital image forensics will only become more important to identify manipulated or fake images. Future advancements may include improved detection of GAN-generated images, tracing image origins and metadata, and better automation for analyzing large data sets of images quickly.

Overall, digital image forensics provides invaluable techniques to authenticate images as unmodified originals. As manipulation techniques grow more sophisticated, research in digital forensics must keep pace to maintain trust and truthfulness in our visual media.