Which of the following is a practice to protect classified information?

Protecting classified information is of the utmost importance for governments, militaries, and companies dealing with sensitive data. There are many practices that can be implemented to help safeguard classified information from unauthorized disclosure. Some of the key methods include:

Proper Classification

Classified information should only be designated as such when it truly needs to be. Overclassification can unnecessarily restrict access and lead to mishandling of information. Classifiers should think carefully about what truly needs protection before applying classification labels. They should specify the level of classification (e.g. Top Secret, Secret, Confidential) and set an appropriate duration for declassification.

Access Controls

Setting proper access controls is crucial. Only individuals with an authorized “need to know” should be granted access to classified information. This helps prevent unnecessary exposure. Strict procedures should be in place for requesting access, granting authorization, and revoking access when no longer needed.

Secure Storage

Classified information must be properly secured when not in use. This means storing documents in approved safes, locking file cabinets, or secure rooms. Proper destruction methods should also be used for classified waste. Storing and destroying classified information according to approved standards helps prevent unauthorized access.


Documents containing classified information should be clearly marked with appropriate classification labels like “Top Secret.” Pages should be marked with their classification level. Marking helps ensure proper awareness and handling of classified material.


Classified information should only be disclosed to individuals who need it to perform their duties. Strict need-to-know practices prevent overexposure. Before sharing classified material, think carefully about whether the recipient truly needs access for their role.


Compartmentalizing classified information into more granular categories helps prevent unnecessary exposure. Those working on highly sensitive projects should not have blanket access to all classified information. Apply compartmentalization to limit their access only to the specific classified information needed.


When transmitting classified information electronically or physically, proper encryption, packaging, and labeling should be used. Follow approved transmission methods to avoid interception or loss. Have recipients confirm receipt to ensure the information is not lost in transit.

Security Education

Those with access to classified information should receive regular security education. This teaches best practices for safeguarding classified material. Ensure personnel understand their responsibilities and proper procedures across the categories above.

Information Security

Classified information should be protected according to rigorous information security standards. This includes practices like account security, access logging, anti-malware systems, intrusion prevention, and regular audits. Robust information security helps prevent unauthorized access to classified systems and data.

Two-Person Integrity

Having two authorized people present when working with the most sensitive classified information (e.g. Top Secret) can help prevent improper use or handling. The two-person rule adds accountability and helps protect the integrity of highly classified material.


Protecting classified information requires layers of defenses. Proper classification, compartmentalization, access controls, transmission procedures, security education, and robust information security work together to help safeguard sensitive data. Consistently implementing best practices across all these areas is key for preventing unauthorized disclosure of classified information.

Detailed Explanation of Practices

Proper Classification

Classifying information appropriately is one of the foundational practices for protecting sensitive data. Overclassification tends to needlessly restrict information sharing while underclassification can lead to unauthorized disclosures. Getting classification just right is critical.

Those with classification authority bear significant responsibility. They must fully understand what level of protection information truly needs. Original classifiers must only apply classification when information clearly meets the standards for being properly classified.

The standards generally used for classifying information include whether unauthorized disclosure could cause:

  • Damage to national security
  • Harm to government functions or operations
  • Damage to business interests or a competitive advantage

Classifiers must be able to clearly articulate the reason information meets a standard for classification. If the reason is unclear, better to err on the side of less restriction until a case can be firmly made.

Beyond determining what to classify, proper practices also dictate how to classify. Original classifiers must indicate one of the accepted classification levels:

  • Top Secret – Exceptionally grave damage to national security. Highest level.
  • Secret – Serious damage to national security.
  • Confidential – Damage to national security or business/competitive interests.

The duration of classification should also be set appropriately. Information should not stay classified indefinitely “just in case.” Set realistic declassification dates based on assessment of sensitive content.

Adhering to these proper practices prevents both over and under classification. Classified information should only be marked as such when absolutely necessary according to accepted standards. And it should be classified at the appropriate level and duration.

Access Controls

Access controls provide safeguards by limiting exposure of classified information only to authorized individuals. Stringent procedures should be in place for granting, administering and revoking access in accordance with the need-to-know principle.

Before being granted access to classified information, individuals must:

  • Have appropriate security clearance for the level of classification
  • Formally agree to comply with non-disclosure requirements
  • Receive security education on proper handling of classified information

All access requests should be justified based on established need-to-know. Requestors should clearly articulate their duties and information needs. An authorizing official must then validate the requested access is required for their work.

Upon authorization, access should be formalized through a written record detailing the level granted and any compartments to be accessed. Strict protocols must be followed for accessing compartments outside the individual’s areas.

Access to classified systems and facilities should be governed by role-based restrictions aligned to clearance level. Logs should track all access, especially to highly classified information. Regular reviews should occur to validate continued access need.

Upon transfer or termination, all access must be revoked in a timely manner. Failure to properly revoke access poses significant risk of unauthorized disclosure. Strict controls throughout the access lifecycle are paramount.

Secure Storage

Classified information must be properly secured when not in use to prevent unauthorized access. This applies to both physical documents and electronic information.

For physical documents, approved secure storage includes:

  • GSA approved security containers
  • Secure rooms with access controls
  • Chained/locked file cabinets

Storage methods should align with the classification level. Top Secret information warrants the strongest measures like GSA Class 6 security vaults. Lower levels may permit locked file cabinets or secure rooms. Unauthorized storage in desks or other receptacles is never permitted.

Documents should be properly marked with cover sheets indicating the classification level and any compartments. They should be secured in opaque envelopes when transported between secure locations.

Classified waste must be destroyed using approved methods like burning, pulping, shredding or other means rendering the information unrecoverable.

For electronic information, data-at-rest encryption should be used along with access controls to limit availability to authorized systems and users only. Logs should record access to classified systems and files.

Strict policies around secure storage apply equally to physical and electronic classified information when not actively being accessed/used.


Proper marking of classified information is essential for appropriate awareness and handling. Consistent standards should be applied for marking documents, files and other records.

At the overall document level, covers should be clearly labeled with:

  • Classification level – Confidential, Secret or Top Secret
  • Any applicable compartment or control markings
  • Declassification date or event

Individual pages should include banners with the highest classification level of information on that page along with any compartments. Example:


Markings should be unambiguous to readers so they know how rigorously to protect the information. Common mistakes like marking covers but not pages can lead to mishandling.

Electronic files should include headers and footers indicating the classification level and any other markings. Filenames should also reflect the classification where possible.

Consistently applying proper markings is vital for all formats of classified information – physical and digital. Clear labels lead to better handling.


Need-to-know is closely tied to access controls but also influences broader information sharing. Classified information should only be disclosed to recipients with an established need-to-know tied to their duties.

Those deciding to share classified information must intentionally consider:

  • Does the recipient require this information for their role?
  • Will providing access improve their ability to complete assigned tasks?

If the answers are unclear, further justification should be required before disclosing information. Need-to-know is not about convenience or curiosity. It must tie clearly to the recipient’s duties.

Oversharing classified information dilutes protections by expanding exposure. Those entrusted with classified data should be diligent about sharing details only on a need-to-know basis.

Need-to-know practices also encourage compartmentalization where possible. Limit sharing to discrete information required versus providing broad access beyond actual needs.


Compartmentalizing classified information into separate categories and handling instructions helps prevent overexposure.

Compartmentalization splits information into distinct compartments only accessible to those working within that compartment. This prevents blanket access to all information within a classification level.

For example, a classified program may have compartmentalized information for different aspects like finance, operations, human intelligence, signals intelligence etc. Personnel should only have access to the specific compartments needed.

Where appropriate, establishing formal compartments beyond just classification levels provides more granular control. Compartmentalization is especially crucial for large classified programs involving many people and system.

Those with access to compartmentalized information require formal access approvals identifying compartments they can access. Strict need-to-know practices should still be enforced within authorized compartments.

By reducing blanket access, compartmentalization minimizes unnecessary exposure of classified information.


Protected transmission procedures are essential when communicating or transferring classified information:

  • Physically mailing or couriering classified documents
  • Electronically sending data like email attachments
  • Verbally discussing classified topics in-person or over the phone

For physical documents, cleared couriers should hand carry classified information in two opaque envelopes. The inner envelope indicates the classification while the outer appears unmarked. Couriers should maintain constant custody until delivery.

When shipping classified material, it should be double-wrapped similar to hand carrying. Package services like UPS or FedEx can be used but require cleared drivers and other special procedures for chain of custody.

For electronic transmission, classified networks with encryption provide the most secure option. Encrypting information and data-in-transit prevents interception.

For verbal discussions, precautions should ensure conversations cannot be overhead. Meet in a secure room or use dampening devices near phones. Information should be shared discreetly.

Proper transmission protocols minimize the risk of compromising classified information during communication. Following standardized methods appropriate to the type of transmission is critical.

Security Education

Those with access to classified information must receive regular security education covering:

  • Proper handling procedures
  • Secure use and storage
  • Transmission methods
  • Reporting requirements
  • Legal responsibilities

Initial training should occur before granting access to classified information. Refresher training should follow annually or as needed for new procedures. Training should align with clearance levels granted.

Beyond formal training programs, organizations should continually reinforce secure behavior through other methods like:

  • Posters, newsletters emphasizing proper practices
  • Quick read cards outlining key procedures
  • Rotating stock messages on computer displays
  • Security-focused events and displays

Proper training ensures personnel understand their crucial role in helping protect classified information. Ongoing emphasis through training and informal reminders keeps security top of mind.

Information Security

Robust technical defenses complement administrative safeguards for classified information:

  • Access controls – Individuals should only have access aligned to assigned duties on a need-to-know basis.
  • Authentication – Strong identification and authorization mechanisms like multi-factor prevent unauthorized access.
  • Auditing – Detailed activity logs provide individual accountability and enable monitoring for misuse.
  • Malware prevention – Anti-virus, anti-spyware, and other tools block malicious software.
  • Patching – Regular system patching closes vulnerabilities
  • Encryption – Appropriate encryption protects confidentiality of classified data.
  • Network Segmentation – Isolate classified systems into protected network zones.

These controls create layered technical defenses around classified information and supporting systems, complementing physical and administrative procedures.

Robust implementation of information security best practices makes exploiting classified environments much more difficult. Technical controls significantly raise the bar for gaining unauthorized access.

Two-Person Integrity

The two-person rule requires two authorized individuals be present when working with the most sensitive classified materials like Top Secret SCI information.

This rule prevents a single individual from having unfettered access that could lead to improper use or disclosure. The second person provides accountability.

Two authorized people must remain present while:

  • Reading classified documents
  • Performing system administration or maintenance on Top Secret systems
  • Conducting inspections, audits or inventories of Top Secret storage

Split knowledge procedures can be enforced where each person has only half the code, key or other access required to open storage devices or containers. Both are required for access.

The two-person rule raises confidence that the most sensitive information and materials are properly handled by minimizing opportunities for individual malfeasance.


Safeguarding classified information requires layered administrative, physical and technical controls. Proper practices around classification levels, access, storage, transmission and security education help prevent unauthorized disclosures.

Robust access controls aligned to need-to-know principles limit unnecessary exposure. Compartmentalization provides finer-grained control and minimizes blanket access.

No single practice is sufficient. Consistently implementing appropriate protections across all areas ensures classified information stays secured.